Scientists Discover How To “Flavor” Your Food To Burn Excess Fat
In colder temperatures, brown adipose tissue (BAT) (also known as brown fat) creates heat that keeps your body warm. In contrast to white-coloured adipose tissue, BAT has more mitochondria–subcellular organelles connected with wind turbine–which enables it to lose calories and convey heat by activating the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp-1). Additionally, the stimulation from the supportive nerve system (SNS) following contact with cold exercise and also the restriction of calories is broadly recognized to cause fat to be brown. Polyphenols in the diet can also trigger BAT, which causes heat to be absorbed by our bodies. BAT activation, as well as white fat browning, are equally important in fighting cardiovascular diseases as well as their comorbidities.
A team of researchers studied the fat’s browning caused by the dietary intake of flavan-3-ols (flavanols or FLs), a group comprised of “catechin” containing polyphenols abundant in apple, cocoa grapeseed, grapeseed, and red wine. In a recent study released in Nutrients, The team, comprised of professor Naomi Osakabe of Graduate School of Engineering and Science, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan, discovered that FLs improve the browning process of adipose tissue through activation of the SNS. The results showed a direct link between the browning of fat and FLs intake and can assist researchers in developing innovative treatments for obesity-related disorders.
The researchers of this study have earlier discovered that a single dose of FLs led to weight loss and enhanced blood flow to the skeletal muscles. They then examined the effects of both single and multiple doses of FLs in the mouse adipose tissue. They discovered that FLs stimulate fat browning through the SNS, which releases “catecholamine” neurotransmitters such as adrenaline (AD) and noradrenaline (NA). They administered cocoa-derived FLs to different groups of mice in two separate series of tests. One group received only one amount of FLs over 24 hours. Then, their urine was tested for toxicity. The second group was treated with multiple doses over 14 days before being dissected to collect white and brown fat samples. All of the fatty samples were analyzed for protein and gene markers that show browning of fat, and urine samples were tested in the presence of AD and NA levels. Higher levels in AD and NA found in the urine after one dose of FL demonstrated SNS activation. While the usage of urine samples to assess SNS activation remains controversial in clinical research, it has been proven to be valid in rodents stressed.The group then used the adipose tissue obtained to examine the long-term effects of FL treatment. They were delighted to learn that the white fats of mice given FLs during 14 days became brown. Certain of these cells showed notable structural changes, such as “multilocular phenotype,” and seemed larger than typical cells. Because BAT disperses heat energy, is it possible that long-term use of FLs alters the number of proteins related to heat? For this answer, scientists found that the levels of Ucp-1 along with other proteins linked to high temperatures were increased in mice that repeatedly received with FLs. Browning markers, also known as “beige markers” in this study, were also present in the mice. “All of these proteins work together to induce the development of the BAT phenotype,” says Prof. Osakabe.
The researchers believe that their research findings could contribute towards the reduction of diseases that are a result of lifestyle. Incredibly, this isn’t the first time that FLs have proved to be a boon. Improved glucose and insulin tolerance have been reported in just one dose of FL-rich foods administration. These results emphasize the need to discuss both the chronic and acute components of the metabolism response caused by FLs consumption.
It’s clear from this study that SNS activity as a result of FL intake led to those observed modifications in mice’s fat.”Even though the mechanism of adipose browning isn’t fully understood, repeated administration of FLs may produce browning via catecholamines, and it is receptors,” states prof. Osakabe. “Further studies are going to be needed to know how FL-wealthy foods induce this method,” she states.